# Serializations

The RDF.ex package comes with implementations of the N-Triples (opens new window), N-Quads (opens new window) and Turtle (opens new window) serialization formats (incl. the respective RDF-star extensions). Formats which require additional dependencies are implemented in separate Hex packages. The JSON-LD (opens new window) format for example is available with the JSON-LD.ex (opens new window) package and the RDF-XML (opens new window) format is available with the RDF-XML.ex (opens new window) package.

RDF graphs and datasets can be read and written to files, strings or streams in a RDF serialization format using the read_file/2, read_string/2, read_stream/2 and the write_file/3, write_string/2 and write_stream/2 functions of the resp. RDF.Serialization.Format module.

{:ok, graph} = RDF.NTriples.read_file("/path/to/some_file.nt")
{:ok, nquad_string} = RDF.NQuads.write_string(graph)


use RDF defines an alias for all of the serializations format implemented in RDF.ex, so that you can use them via NTriples, NQuads and Turtle.

All of the read and write functions are also available in bang variants which will fail in error cases.

All of these read_* and write_* functions are also available in the top-level RDF module, where the serialization format can be specified in various ways, either by providing the format name via the format option, or via the media_type option.

{:ok, graph} = RDF.read_file("/path/to/some_file", format: :turtle)
json_ld_string = RDF.write_string!(graph, media_type: "application/ld+json")

Note: The later command requires the json_ld package to be defined as a dependency in the Mixfile of your application.

The file read and write functions are also able to infer the format from the file extension of the given filename.

|> RDF.write_file!("/path/to/some_file.jsonld")

# Streaming

Some of the available serialization formats also provide support for reading serializations from files and writing serializations to streams. At the moment these are the builtin N-Triples and N-Quads formats and the RDF-XML format. For those you have the read_stream/2, read_stream!/2 and write_stream/2 functions available.

graph = RDF.XML.read_stream!(xml_stream)
xml_stream = RDF.XML.write_stream(graph)

Note, that there's no write_stream!/2 function. Since it's not possible to determine upfront, if anything will be ok with the stream, write_stream/2 behaves like the other bang variants: It returns the stream directly and errors during consumption of the stream will raise an error.

Many times you'll want read streams from the contents of a file or write streams whose content is written to a file. In these cases you don't have to reach for the stream functions, but can use the file read and write functions instead. For formats with streaming support they use streaming by default, except for write_file/3. For the same reason as above, only write_file!/3 uses streams by default. But you can use the :stream option to opt-in on write_file/3 or opt-out on the other functions.

# File compression

Both file reader and writer functions support a gzip option which allows to read and write from and to gzip'ed files directly.

|> RDF.XML.write_file!("/path/to/some_file.rdf.gz")

This feature can also be combined with file access via streams.

# Base IRI

For serialization formats which support it, you can provide a base IRI on the read functions with the base_iri option. If you don't pass it, the base IRI associated with the serialized graph is used. This is automatically set on deserialization to the one used in serialization or you set it on the graph with the RDF.Graph.set_base_iri/2 function, which also also accepts RDF.Vocabulary.Namespace modules.

|> RDF.Graph.set_base_iri(EX)

You can also provide a default base IRI in your application configuration, which will be used when no base IRI is given as an option or is set on the graph.

config :rdf,
  default_base_iri: "http://my_app.example/"

# Managing prefixes

The prefixes used in serialization formats which support this can be managed in various ways.

An RDF.Graph contains a mapping of prefixes to IRI namespaces. You can add prefixes with RDF.Graph.add_prefixes/2. The mapping can given as a map or keyword lists, where the prefixes might be given as atoms or strings, while the IRI namespaces can be given as RDF.IRIs, strings or as RDF.Vocabulary.Namespace modules. You can use any combinations of these different types, prefixes are stored internally always as atoms and IRI namespaces always as RDF.IRIs.

|> RDF.Graph.add_prefixes(ex: EX, schema: ~I<http://schema.org/>)
|> RDF.Graph.add_prefixes(%{"ex2" => "http://example2.com/"})

A single prefix or a list of multiple prefixes can be deleted with RDF.Graph.delete_prefixes/2.

|> RDF.Graph.delete_prefixes("ex"])
|> RDF.Graph.delete_prefixes([:ex2, :schema])

When a graph is read from such serialization format the deserialized prefixes are automatically stored in the RDF.Graph structure.

Writing a RDF data structure gives you more options for which prefixes should be serialized:

  1. The prefixes option of the write_* functions can be used provide prefix mappings in all the different ways mentionend above and always have the highest precedence.
  2. If the RDF data to be serialized is given as a RDF.Graph with defined prefixes these are used, when no prefixes are given with prefixes option otherwise.
  3. As a fallback when prefixes are not defined in these ways the RDF.default_prefixes/0 are used. You can configure these with the default_prefixes compile-time configuration in your confix.exs files:
config :rdf,
  default_prefixes: %{
    ex: "http://example.com/"
  1. The RDF.default_prefixes/0 always contain the RDF.standard_prefixes/0 consisting of prefixes the usual xsd, rdf and rdfs prefixes. If you don't want to use these RDF.standard_prefixes/0 for your default_prefixes you'll explicitly have to disable them with the use_standard_prefixes compile-time configuration option.
config :rdf,
  use_standard_prefixes: false